 Recurrent Neural Network

# Recurrent Neural Network

Donny July 30, 2018
March 12, 2019
388

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There are two typical RNN units of the hidden layers of the RNN according to Andrew Ng. One is GRN (Gated Recurrent Unit), the other is LSTM (Long Short-Term Memory).

Notice: Please refer to Mathematical Basis - Squashing Function for some basic math knowledge about the squashing functions.

## GRN - Gated Recurrent Unit

The GRN is a gating mechanism in recurrent neural networks, introduced in 2014 by Kyunghyun Cho et al.

The fully gated version :

$$%GRN \tikzstyle{Entity}=[] \tikzstyle{Function}=[shape=rect, draw=blue, fill=cyan] \tikzstyle{Operation}=[shape=circle, draw=orange, fill=orange!30] \tikzstyle{arrow}=[draw, -latex, rounded corners=5pt] \tikzstyle{Region}=[draw=green, fill=green!30, line width=3pt, rounded corners=10pt] \begin{tikzpicture} %\draw [green] (-1,1) grid (10,-10); %\draw [line, brown] (-1,0) -- (10,0); %\draw [line, brown] (0,1) -- (0,-10); \draw [Region] (0.2,-1.0) rectangle (8.5,-7.7); \node [Entity] (c^{<t-1>}) at (-1,-2) {c^{<t-1>}}; \node [Entity] (c^{<t>}) at (10,-2) {c^{<t>}}; \node [Entity] (x) at (1,-8.5) {x^{<t>}}; \node [Entity] (y) at (7,0) {y^{<t>}}; \node [Entity, right] (Gamma_r) at (3,-4.4) {\Gamma_r}; \node [Entity, left] (Gamma_u) at (5,-4.4) {\Gamma_u}; \node [Entity, right] (tilde_{c}^{<t>}) at (7,-5) {\tilde{c}^{<t>}}; \node [Function] (sigma_r) at (3.0,-5) {\sigma}; \node [Function] (sigma_u) at (5.0,-5) {\sigma}; \node [Function] (tanh_cc) at (7.0,-6) {tanh}; % cc: candidate c \node [Operation] (multi_r) at (2.0,-4) {*}; \node [Operation] (subby1_u) at (5.0,-3.2) {1-}; \node [Operation] (multi_u) at (5.0,-2) {*}; \node [Operation] (multi_cc) at (7.0,-4) {*}; \node [Operation] (add_c) at (7.0,-2) {+}; \draw [arrow] (c^{<t-1>}) -| (1,-6) -| (sigma_r); \draw [arrow] (x) |- (3,-6) -| (sigma_r); \draw [arrow] (2,-6) -| (sigma_u); \draw [arrow] (c^{<t-1>}) -| (multi_r); \draw [arrow] (sigma_r) |- (multi_r); \draw [arrow] (x) |- (7,-7) -| (tanh_cc); \draw [arrow] (multi_r) |- (7,-7) -| (tanh_cc); \draw [arrow] (tanh_cc) -- (multi_cc); \draw [arrow] (multi_cc) -- (add_c); \draw [arrow] (sigma_u) |- (multi_cc); \draw [arrow] (sigma_u) -- (subby1_u); \draw [arrow] (subby1_u) -- (multi_u); \draw [arrow] (c^{<t-1>}) -- (multi_u); \draw [arrow] (multi_u) -- (add_c); \draw [arrow] (add_c) -- (y); \draw [arrow] (add_c) -- (c^{<t>}); \end{tikzpicture}$$

The formulas :

$$\tilde{c}^{<t>} = tanh( W_c [\Gamma_r \star c^{<t-1>}, x^{<t>}] + b_c ) \\ \Gamma_u = \sigma( W_u [c^{<t-1>}, x^{<t>}] + b_u ) \\ \Gamma_r = \sigma( W_r [c^{<t-1>}, x^{<t>}] + b_r ) \\ c^{<t>} = \Gamma_u \star \tilde{c}^{<t>} + (1-\Gamma_u) \star c^{<t-1>}$$

@ $$c$$ : The memory cell.

@ $$x$$ : The input sequence.

@ $$y$$ : The output sequence.

@ $$\Gamma_r$$ : Gate gamma r. It tells us how relevance is $$c^{<t-1>}$$ to computing the next candidate for $$c^{<t>}$$.

@ $$\Gamma_u$$ : Gate gamma u. The update gate vector. Decide whether or not we actually update $$c$$, the memory cell.

@ $$\tilde{c}^{<t>}$$ : The candidate value for the memory cell.

@ $$tanh$$ : Hyperbolic tangent function. It squashes a real-valued number to the range [-1,1]. Defined as $$tanh(x) = \frac{e^x - e^{-x}}{e^x + e^{-x}}$$. More at Hyperbolic Function section in my article RNN-Base.

@ $$\sigma$$ : Sigmoid function. It squashes a real-valued number to the range [0,1]. Often the output value will be very close to either 0 or 1.

@ $$W_{*}$$ : Concatenated weight vector for $$c^{<t-1>}$$ and $$x^{<t>}$$.

@ $$b_{*}$$ : Concatenated bias vector for $$c^{<t-1>}$$ and $$x^{<t>}$$.

The $$tanh$$ Function:

$$\tikz \node [scale=1.1] { \begin{tikzpicture}[] \begin{axis}[ samples=120, axis line style=gray, xmin=-2, xmax=2, ymin=-2, ymax=2, axis equal, axis x line=center, axis y line=center, xlabel=x, ylabel=y, ] \addplot[blue]{(exp(x)-exp(-x))/(exp(x)+exp(-x))}; \addplot[blue] coordinates{(1.5,1.5)} node{tanh(x)=\frac{e^x-e^{-x}}{e^x+e^{-x}}}; \end{axis} \end{tikzpicture} };$$

## LSTM - Long Short-Term Memory

The LSTM is an even slightly more powerful and more general version of the GRU, with more complicated structure.

The structure graph:

$$%LSTM \tikzstyle{Entity}=[] \tikzstyle{Function}=[shape=rect, draw=blue, fill=cyan] \tikzstyle{Operation}=[shape=circle, draw=orange, fill=orange!30] \tikzstyle{arrow}=[draw, -latex, rounded corners=5pt] \tikzstyle{Region}=[draw=green, fill=green!30, line width=3pt, rounded corners=10pt] \begin{tikzpicture} %\draw [green] (-1,1) grid (10,-10); %\draw [line, brown] (-1,0) -- (10,0); %\draw [line, brown] (0,1) -- (0,-10); \draw [Region] (0.2,-1.0) rectangle (9.5,-8); \node [Entity] (c^{<t-1>}) at (-1,-2) {c^{<t-1>}}; \node [Entity] (c^{<t>}) at (11,-2) {c^{<t>}}; \node [Entity] (a^{<t-1>}) at (-1,-7) {a^{<t-1>}}; \node [Entity] (a^{<t>}) at (11,-7) {a^{<t>}}; \node [Entity] (x) at (1,-9) {x^{<t>}}; \node [Entity] (y) at (9,1) {y^{<t>}}; \node [Entity, left] () at (9,-0.5) {a^{<t>}}; \node [Entity, above] () at (5,-2) {c^{<t>}}; \node [Entity, right] (Gamma_f) at (2,-5.5) {\Gamma_f}; \node [Entity, right] (Gamma_u) at (3.5,-5.5) {\Gamma_u}; \node [Entity, right] (Gamma_o) at (6.8,-5.7) {\Gamma_o}; \node [Entity, right] (tilde_{c}^{<t>}) at (5,-5.4) {\tilde{c}^{<t>}}; \node [Function] (sigma_f) at (2,-6) {\sigma_f}; \node [Function] (sigma_u) at (3.5,-6) {\sigma_u}; \node [Function] (sigma_o) at (6.5,-6) {\sigma_o}; \node [Function] (tanh_cc) at (5,-6) {tanh_{cc}};% cc: candiate c \node [Function] (tanh_a) at (8,-4) {tanh_a}; \node [Operation] (multi_f) at (2,-2) {*}; \node [Operation] (multi_u) at (3.5,-4) {*}; \node [Operation] (add_c) at (3.5,-2) {+}; \node [Operation] (multi_o) at (8,-6) {*}; \draw [arrow] (a^{<t-1>}) -| (sigma_f); \draw [arrow] (a^{<t-1>}) -| (sigma_u); \draw [arrow] (a^{<t-1>}) -| (sigma_o); \draw [arrow] (a^{<t-1>}) -| (tanh_cc); \draw [arrow] (x) |- (2,-7) -- (sigma_f); \draw [arrow] (x) |- (3.5,-7) -- (sigma_u); \draw [arrow] (x) |- (6.5,-7) -- (sigma_o); \draw [arrow] (x) |- (5,-7) -- (tanh_cc); \draw [arrow] (c^{<t-1>}) -- (multi_f); \draw [arrow] (sigma_f) -- (multi_f); \draw [arrow] (multi_f) -- (add_c); \draw [arrow] (sigma_u) -- (multi_u); \draw [arrow] (tanh_cc) |- (multi_u); \draw [arrow] (multi_u) -- (add_c); \draw [arrow] (add_c) -- (c^{<t>}); \draw [arrow] (sigma_o) -- (multi_o); \draw [arrow] (add_c) -| (tanh_a); \draw [arrow] (tanh_a) -- (multi_o); \draw [arrow] (multi_o) |- (a^{<t>}); \draw [arrow] (multi_o) |- (9,-7) -- (y); \end{tikzpicture}$$

The formulas:

$$\tilde{c}^{<t>} = tanh( W_c [a^{<t-1>}, x^{<t>}] + b_c ) \\ \Gamma_u = \sigma( W_u [a^{<t-1>}, x^{<t>}] + b_u ) \\ \Gamma_f = \sigma( W_f [a^{<t-1>}, x^{<t>}] + b_f ) \\ \Gamma_o = \sigma( W_o [a^{<t-1>}, x^{<t>}] + b_o ) \\ c^{<t>} = \Gamma_u \star \tilde{c}^{<t>} + \Gamma_f \star c^{<t-1>} \\ a^{<t>} = \Gamma_o \star tanh^{[:1]} ( c^{<t>} )$$

@ $$c$$ : The memory cell.

@ $$a$$ : The output activation.

@ $$x$$ : The input sequence.

@ $$y$$ : The output sequence.

@ $$\Gamma_u$$ : The update gate's activation vector.

@ $$\Gamma_f$$ : The forget gate's activation vector.

@ $$\Gamma_o$$ : The output gate's activation vector.

@ $$\tilde{c}$$ : The candidate c value.

# $$[comment:1]$$ : Hyperbolic tangent function $$tanh$$ or, as the peephole LSTM paper suggests, just using function $$y=x$$ instead.